TED | 微笑背后所隐藏的巨大魔力!

作者:chenhan发表时间:2018-12-19浏览:581
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  When I was a child, I always wanted to be a superhero. I wantedto save the world and then make everyone happy. But I knew that I'd needsuperpowers to make my dreams come true. So I used to embark on these imaginaryjourneys to find intergalactic objects from planet Krypton, which was a lot offun, but didn't get much result. When I grew up, and realized thatscience-fiction was not a good source for superpowers, I decided instead toembark on a journey of real science, to find a more useful truth.

  我童年时,一直想成为一位超级英雄,我想拯救世界,让每个人都快乐,但我知道需要超能力才能让我的梦想成真,所以我展开这些想象之旅,到克利普顿星(超人的家乡)寻找星际间的天体。这很有趣,但没什么成果。当我长大后,了解到科幻小说不是超能力的好来源,我决定展开一场真正的科学之旅,寻找更有用的真理。

  I started my journey in California with a UC Berkley 30-year longitudinal studythat examined the photos of students in an old yearbook and tried to measuretheir success and well-being throughout their life.

  我的旅程开始于加州,以柏克莱大学从事30年期的纵贯研究,研究一本旧年鉴中的学生照片,试着衡量他们一生的成就和幸福。

  By measuring their studentsmiles, researchers were able to predict how fulfilling and long-lasting asubject's marriage will be, how well she would score on standardized tests ofwell-being and how inspiring she would be to others. In another yearbook, Istumbled upon Barry Obama's picture. When I first saw his picture, I thoughtthat these superpowers came from his super collar. But now I know it was all inhis smile.

  藉由衡量学生的微笑,研究人员能够预测研究对象的婚姻是否圆满及长久,他在标准化幸福评量中能得到多少分,以及他能为别人带来多少启发。在另一本年鉴中,我偶然发现了欧巴马的照片,当我第一次看到他的照片时,我认为这些超能力来自于他的超大衣领,但现在我知道这全来自于他的笑容。

  Another aha! moment came from a 2010 Wayne State University research projectthat looked into pre-1950s baseball cards of Major League players. Theresearchers found that the span of a players smile could actually predict thespan of his life. Players who didn't smile in their pictures lived an averageof only 72.9 years, where players with beaming smiles lived an average ofalmost 80 years.

  另一个啊哈!时刻,来自2010年Wayne州立大学的研究项目,观察50年代前职棒大联盟球员的棒球卡,研究人员发现,球员微笑的宽度事实上可以预测他寿命的长度,相片中没有笑容的球员,平均寿命仅72.9岁,拥有灿烂笑容的球员,平均寿命将近80岁。

  The good news is that we're actually born smiling. Using 3Dultrasound technology, we can now see that developing babies appear to smile,even in the womb. When they're born, babies continue to smile -- initially,mostly in their sleep. And even blind babies smile to the sound of the humanvoice.

  好消息是,我们天生就会微笑 通过三维超声波技术 我们可以看到,即使在子宫中,正在成形的胎儿 似乎也是面带微笑的 出生之后 他们还是带着微笑——他们大多在睡梦中微笑 失明的婴儿 听到人声时也会微笑。

  Smiling is one of the most basic, biologically-uniform expressions ofall humans.

  In studies conducted in Papua New Guinea, Paul Ekman, the world's most renownedresearcher on facial expressions, found that even members of the Fore tribe,who were completely disconnected from Western culture, and also known for theirunusual cannibalism rituals, attributed smiles to descriptions of situationsthe same way you and I would.

  微笑是全人类生理上最统一、 最基本的表情。在巴布亚新几内亚进行的研究中,Paul Ekman,世界上最知名的脸部表情研究者发现,即使是Fore部落中的成员,他们完全与西方文化隔绝,也因他们不寻常的吃人仪式而众所皆知,他们就像你我一样,也会在某些情况下微笑。

  So from Papau New Guinea to Hollywood all the wayto modern art in Beijing, we smile often, and you smile to express joy andsatisfaction.

  因此,从巴布亚新几内亚到好莱坞,一直到北京的现代艺术,我们经常微笑着。你用微笑来表达喜悦和满足。

  How many people here in this room smile more than 20 times perday? Raise your hand if you do. Oh, wow. Outside of this room, more than athird of us smile more than 20 times per day, whereas less than 14 percent ofus smile less than five. In fact, those with the most amazing superpowers areactually children who smile as many as 400 times per day.

  在这房间里,有多少人每天微笑超过20次?如果有的话请举起手。哦,哇!在这个房间外,超过三分之一的人每天微笑超过20次,不到14%的人每天微笑少于5次。事实上,拥有最惊人超能力的是孩童,他们每天微笑多达400次。

  Have you ever wondered why being around children who smile sofrequently makes you smile very often? A recent study at Uppsala University inSweden found that it's very difficult to frown when looking at someone whosmiles. You ask, why? Because smiling is evolutionarily contagious, and itsuppresses the control we usually have on our facial muscles. Mimicking a smileand experiencing it physically help us understand whether our smile is fake orreal, so we can understand the emotional state of the smiler.

  你有没有想过,为什么身处在经常微笑的孩子身边,也会让你经常微笑?最近在瑞典Uppsala大学的一项研究发现,当看着正在微笑的人时是很难皱眉的。你会问为什么?因为微笑具有演化上的感染性,它能抑制我们平时对脸部肌肉的控制,模仿一个微笑并实际体验它,帮助我们了解我们的微笑是假是真,因此我们可以了解微笑者的情绪状态。

  In a recent mimicking study at the University of Clermont-Ferrand in France,subjects were asked to determine whether a smile was real or fake while holdinga pencil in their mouth to repress smiling muscles. Without the pencil,subjects were excellent judges, But with the pencil in their mouth, when theycould not mimic the smile they saw, their judgment was impaired.

  最近在法国Clermont-Ferrand大学的一次模仿研究中,要求测试对象在口中含住一支铅笔抑制微笑肌肉时,判断一个微笑是真是假。不含住铅笔时测试对象有优秀的判断力,但当他们口中含着铅笔时,就无法模仿他们看到的笑容,他们的判断力就会受损。

  In addition to theorizing on evolution in "The Origin ofSpecies", Charles Darwin also wrote the facial feedback response theory.His theory states that the act of smiling itself actually makes us feel better-- rather than smiling being merely a result of feeling good. In his study,Darwin actually cited a French neurologist, Guillaume Duchenne, who usedelectric jolts to facial muscles to induce and stimulate smiles. Please, don'ttry this at home.

  除了在《物种起源》中阐述进化论以外,达尔文还写了脸部回馈理论。他的理论阐述,微笑这个行为本身,事实上能让我们感觉更好,而不仅是感觉不错的一个结果。在他的研究中,达尔文事实上引用了法国神经学家Guillaume Duchenne的实验,他使用电刺激脸部肌肉,诱发及激起微笑产生。请不要在家里尝试这个。

  In a related German study, researchers used fMRI imaging tomeasure brain activity before and after injecting Botox to suppress smilingmuscles. The finding supported Darwin's theory by showing that facial feedbackmodifies the neural processing of emotional content in the brain in a way that helpsus feel better when we smile. Smiling stimulates our brain reward mechanism ina way that even chocolate -- a well-regarded pleasure inducer -- cannot match.

  在德国一项相关研究中,研究人员使用功能性核磁共振造影(fMRI),拍摄在注射肉毒杆菌抑制微笑肌肉前后,对大脑活动进行测量的照片,这个发现支持达尔文的理论,显示当我们微笑时,脸部回馈会改变大脑中情绪部份的神经处理程序,在某种程度上帮助我们感觉更好。微笑刺激我们的大脑奖励机制,在某种程度上,甚至连巧克力,一个公认的快乐诱导物,都无法比拟。

  British researchers found that one smile can generate the samelevel of brain stimulation as up to 2,000 bars of chocolate. (Laughter) Wait.The same study found that smiling is as stimulating as receiving up to 16,000pounds Sterling in cash. That's like 25 grand a smile. It's not bad. And thinkabout it this way: 25,000 times 400 -- quite a few kids out there feel likemark Zuckerberg every day.

  英国研究人员发现,一个微笑可以使大脑产生与2000根巧克力棒相同程度的刺激。(笑声)等等,同样的研究发现,微笑造成的刺激跟得到16000英镑现金相同,一个微笑就像25000美金,还不错。再想想看,25000乘以400,世上不少孩子每天都有像Mark Zuckerberg的感觉(facebook创办人)。

  And, unlike lots of chocolate, lots of smiling can actually makeyou healthier. Smiling can help reduce the level of stress-enhancing hormoneslike cortisol, adrenaline and dopamine, increase the level of mood-enhancinghormones like endorphin and reduce overall blood pressure.

  而且,不像一大堆巧克力,大量微笑事实上可以让你更健康。微笑可以帮助降低提升压力荷尔蒙的含量,如皮质醇、肾上腺素和多巴胺,增加提升情绪荷尔蒙的含量,如脑内啡,并降低整体血压。

  And if that's not enough, smiling can actually look good in the eyes of others.A recent study at Penn State University found that when you smile you don'tonly appear to be more likable and courteous, but you actually appear to bemore competent.

  如果这还不够,微笑事实上可以使你在他人眼中看起来更好。最近一项在宾州州立大学的研究发现,当你微笑时,你不仅显得更可爱、更有礼貌,事实上你会显得更能干。

  So whenever you want to look great and competent, reduce your stress or improveyour marriage, or feel as if you just had a whole stack of high-qualitychocolate -- without incurring the caloric cost -- or as if you found 25 grandin a pocket of an old jacket you hadn't worn for ages, or whenever you want totap into a superpower that will help you and everyone around you live a longer,healthier, happier life, smile.

  所以,当你想看起来很棒、很能干、减少你的压力,或改善你的婚姻,或想要感觉像是吃了一堆高质量巧克力,而不需承受热量的代价,或彷佛在一件多年没穿的旧夹克口袋中发现二万五千元,或当你想使用超能力帮助自己和周围每个人活得更长久、更健康、生活得更幸福,微笑吧!


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