英语阅读作文差,多数因为长短句!这份句子详尽解析你绝对需要!

作者:chenhan发表时间:2018-12-26浏览:126
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  句子是构成篇章的基本单位,要读懂一篇文章,首先要理解每个句子。同样,要写出一篇文章,首先要写好每个句子。一个句子最短的基本成分是“主+谓”,最长的基本成分是“主+谓+宾+补”。基本成分的修饰语为附属成分:定语―修饰限制名词或代词的单词、短语或从句;状语―修饰限制谓语、句子或句子里一部分的单词、短语或从句。

  一、附属成分作定语

  英语中的定语可分为限制性定语和非限制性定语。用来作定语的有:名词、数词、形容词、代词、副词、介词短语、非谓语动词和定语从句等等。

  1. 限制性定语:单个词放在被修饰的词前面,短语和从句放在被修饰的词后面。

  (1)名词、形容词、副词、数词、代词或介词短语等;

  ①She worked in a shoe factory.

  ②Please don’t be so cruel to a ten-year-old child like that.

  副词作定语一般放在被修饰的词后面, 以表示位置的居多。如:

  ③Do you know the man over there?

  ④Poor Jack tottered toward a hospital nearby.

  present, absent, a-开头的形容词和形容词短语作定语放在被修饰的词之后。可以理解成which /that / who +is(was) / are(were)引导的定语从句的省略。如:

  ⑤All the people present at the party were his supporters.

  ⑥I think he is the oldest man alive in the small town.

  (2)非谓语动词(短语),一般可转换成限制性定语从句。

  ①Let’s find a restaurant to have lunch in.

  句中黑体部分可改为:where/in which we can have lunch

  ②The repairs cost a lot, but it’s money well spent.

  句中黑体部分可改为:that/which was well spent

  【注】 -ing形式作定语时只能用一般式, 表示与谓语动词动作同时发生,不可使用其完成式。如:

  ③Suddenly, a tall man driving a golden carriage seized the girl and took her away, disappearing into the woods.

  句中黑体部分可改为:who/that was driving a golden carriage

  ④The flowers smelling sweet in the botanic garden attract the visitors to the beauty of nature.

  句中黑体部分可改为:that/which smell sweet in the botanic garden

  (3)限制性定语从句。

  ①We are living in an age when/in which many things are done on computer.

  ②Many people who had seen the film were afraid to go to the forest when they remembered the scenes in which people were eaten by the tiger.

  2. 非限制性定语,一般放在后面,对中心词起修饰作用,而不对其进行限制。省略之后对句子意思的表达影响不大。

  (1)名词、数词、形容词等短语,可理解为一个省略的非限制性定语从句。

  ①David, our English teacher, appreciated your idea much.

  句中黑体部分可改为:who was our English teacher

  ②He was sent to France, a European country.

  句中黑体部分可改为:which was a European country

  (2)非谓语动词(短语),一般可转换成非限制性定语从句。如:

  The manager, making it clear to us that he didn’t agree with us, left the meeting room.

  句中黑体部分可改为: who made it clear to us that he didn’t agree with us

  (3)非限制性定语从句,常可转换成分词或并列句。如:

  ①John said he’d been working in the office for an hour, which was true.

  句中黑体部分可改为:and it was true

  ②The famous basketball star, who tried to make a comeback, attracted a lot of attention.

  句中黑体部分可改为:trying to make a comeback

  【注】 as引导的非限制性定语从句常可提前,但and引导的并列句应在前一个分句后。如:

  As is often the case, we have worked out the production plan.

  可改为:We have worked out the production plan and it is often the case.

  二、附属成分作状语

  状语是用来修饰限制谓语?整个句子或句子里的一部分。常用来作状语的有:形容词?副词?介词短语?非谓语动词和状语从句等等。状语和句子间的逻辑关系各有不同,可以分成不同的状语:原因状语、时间状语、条件状语、结果状语、让步状语、伴随状语、目的状语、结果状语等等。

  1、形容词、副词和介词短语等作状语。如:

  ①Thirsty, he went into a tea house. (thirsty 是形容词,可看成是分词短语being thirsty的省略,对主语he进行补充说明)

  ②She sat quietly in her seat.(quietly是副词,修饰动作sat)

  【注】 形容词通常不作状语,偶尔有形容词作状语,通常表示原因、方式、伴随、时间、让步等。如:

  ③He came in, full of fear. (表伴随,相当于When he came in, he was full of fear.)

  ④Ripe, the fruit tastes better. (表时间,相当于When the fruit is ripe.)

  ⑤Right or wrong, I will stand on your side. (表让步,相当于Whether you are right or wrong.)

  2、非谓语动词(短语),可转换成状语从句。如:

  ①Lost in the mountains for a week, the two students were finally saved by the local police. =句中黑体部分可补充为:After they were lost in the mountains for a week.

  ②It was unbelievable that the fans waited outside the gym for three hours just to have a look at the sports stars.

  句中黑体部分可改为:in order that they could have a look at the sports stars

  3、状语从句。

  ①The house could fall down soon if no one does some quick repair work. (表条件)

  ②Roses need special care so that they can live through winter. (表目的)

  ③Since /as the weather is so bad, we have to delay our journey.(表原因)

  ④He speaks English as though he were an Englishman. (表方式)

  熟练掌握句子的附属成分,对准确理解句子意思大有裨益,对长句的理解很有好处。在阅读中,有利于将长句读短,去掉枝蔓,抓住核心,提高篇章的理解能力。了解句子的附属成分也有助于写作。正确使用好句子附属成分能将意思表达更加准确,叙述更加生动,丰富表达方式,增强文章感染力。


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